Conlangs of a Remembrancer

The Speech of Other Worlds

Shshi Pronouns

For additional information on use of pronouns see pages on Shshi Verbs.

Nominative Case

I, we:   sho, shsho
you, you (pl.):   bei, shbei
it, they (neut. personal):   fa, shfa
it, they (things):   fai, shfai
he, they (masc.):   ma, shma
she, they (fem.):   ta, shta

 Objective Case (direct object and object of preposition):

  Formed by suffixing ’a to the nominative form.

The Warrior accompanied us: pai’zei|⇆ fa’oibot| shsho’a| ||
The rocks fell on them [i.e., the Warriors]:  shka’zi|⇆ shfai’thivot| da| shfa’a| ||
He touches her:  ma’zifo| ta’a| ||

 Genitive (Possessive) Case

Formed by prefixing ki’ to the nominative case.  ki actually means “of” but is used mostly for forming the possessive.

Our Warriors are strong:  ki’shsho| shpai’zei| ⇆ shfash|da’lo| ||
I see your beautiful wings [lit., I see wings beautiful your] : sho’teio|shtuk’zi| da’stuv| ki’shbei| ||

At this point I need to acknowledge that I committed a serious omission in constructing the Shshi language.  I never worked out a form for expressing the non-possessive English “of”. For example, if I wanted to say, “This fortress is made of stone” or “a fortress of stone is better than a fortress of wood,” I have never set up a Shshi construction for that.  I don’t even have a word for “from” in that meaning that I could use.  It’s a serious oversight, and one I would have to remedy if I ever encountered a need to use such a construction.

I actually only became aware of the difference when I spent some time studying Hebrew (don’t ask me at this point why I wanted to study Hebrew).  For example, in the song “Jerusalem of Gold,” the Romanized words are “Yerushalayim shel zahav,” where “shel” means “of.”   For possessives, Hebrew uses something called a “construct state,” where the two nouns simply follow each other (although in many instances the first noun changes its vowels, in several quite complicated ways):  “a man’s hand” is expressed “hand man” with “of”  implied.

 However, I did account for those differences in meaning when I constructed !Ka<tá. 

Possessive Pronouns (non-modifying, i.e., used as a predicate nominative):

  Add –z to the genitive form.

The rock is mine:  ka’zi| ⇆ she| ki’shoz| ||
The flowers are theirs:  shra| ⇆ shshe| ↻ ki’shfaz| ||

Relative Pronouns (who, which, that, whom)

These are all expressed vi|.  “Whom” as a relative pronoun is also expressed vi|. 

The Warrior that arrived late confronted the Champion, whom it defeated: (literally, Who arrived late Warrior confronted the Champion, whom it defeated):   vi| fa’krovot| naf’il| pai’zei| ⇆ fa’umot| lo’hi’zei| vi| fa’baot| ||

 Reflexive pronouns

When used for emphasis, use the nominative case of the pronoun plus the emphatic marker > and place it before the subject-verb.

I myself will go:  sho|> sho’u’trio| ||
You yourself spoke:  bei|> bei’ganot| ||
Ki’shto’ba himself spoke:  fa|> ki’shto’ba’ze|⇆ fa’ganot.

For true reflexive, use objective case plus the emphatic marker (without object link):

I see myself:  sho’teio| sho’a|>||
The seer named herself:  tei’zei| ⇆ ta’loiot| ta’a|>||
A Warrior cannot feed itself.  pai’zei| ⇆ fa’paho| wei| ⇅ ruvo| fa’a>| ||
We got lost in the mountains (We lost ourselves in the mountains):  shsho’gondot| shsho’a|> i| shkwai’mi| ||

Leave a Reply